Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate

History of Army Intelligence

C5ISR Center’s Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate has a rich history of development of signal intelligence and radar technology dating back to the Army Signals Laboratory during World War II.

C5ISR Center I2WD traces its roots back to numerous predecessor organizations, to include the Army’s Signal Corps and its Military Intelligence community, whose core functions align with I2WD’s core capabilities.

Shortly after World War I, the U.S. Army Signal Corps established the Signals Corps Radio Laboratories at Camp Alfred Vail in central New Jersey, which later was renamed to Fort Monmouth.

In 1941, the Signals Corps laboratory relocated to Camp Evans, a few miles south of Fort Monmouth.

At the end of World War II, the Army established an I2WD predecessor as the technical arm of the U.S. Army Security Agency, an organization at Arlington Hall Station, Va. that existed between 1945 and 1976.

In 1977, the U.S. Army transferred the Army Security Agency to the U.S. Army Electronics Research and Development Command (ERADCOM) and relocated from Arlington Hall Station to Vint Hill Farms Station in Warrenton, Va.

In 1985, the Army transferred control to the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command’s (CECOM) Research, Development and Engineering Center at Fort Monmouth, and the Army Material Command re-designated it as a directorate in 1991.

In 1992 the Intelligence and Electronics Warfare Directorate formed through the combining of the Signals Warfare Directorate with personnel from the Electronic Warfare, Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Targeting Acquisition (EW/RSTA) Directorate.

Under the 1995 Base, Realignment and Closure decision, the directorate was transferred from Vint Hill Farms Station to Fort Monmouth.

In 1999, technical areas of expertise were enhanced to include radar and electronic combat capabilities.

I2WD’s operations resided at Fort Monmouth until the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Act transferred the majority of I2WD activities to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., where its work in intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and targeting; intelligence, analysis, exploitation and dissemination; cyberspace operations and electronic warfare continues today.

In 1928, the Army Signals Laboratory developed and launched the first radio-equipped weather balloon.

One of the first prototype radar systems developed at Fort Monmouth, the SCR-270, was in service near the island of Oahu on the morning of December 7, 1941. At 7:20 a.m., the operators reported detecting a flight of planes due north, but the duty officer dismissed it as “nothing unusual,” and the alarm went unheeded. At 7:59 a.m., Pearl Harbor was attacked.

In late 1945, the Army started Project Diana in an effort to bounce a radar signal off the moon and back to earth using a modified SCR-271 radar with a special antenna. Calculations by Dr. Walter S. McAfee allowed engineers to complete this task. The project's success determined that a high frequency radio signal could penetrate the earth’s outer atmosphere. I2WD later named its Fort Monmouth and Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. facilities after McAfee.

In 1962, the Army developed an experimental 10-pound hand-held radar unit, which used the latest micro-miniaturization technology. It could spot moving targets more than a mile away. This was the prototype for the radar units used by police departments across the United States to detect speeding motorists.

In 1974 came the AN/APR-39 Radar Warning System, which identified and provided directional information of radar threats, thereby permitting avoidance flying and increasing the probability of survival. There is currently an improved, programmable digital version aboard most Army aircraft.

In 1989, the Army developed the Multi-Sensor Target Acquisition System (MTAS), a millimeter wave radio that provided modern heavy forces with an independent, all-weather sensor capability to augment infrared and visible sensor inputs. The radar afforded 360-degree independent search and acquisition of multiple ground and helicopter targets.

In 2004, the Lightweight Counter Mortar Radar was developed. It provided 360 degrees of azimuth coverage and was used to detect, locate and report hostile locations of enemy indirect firing systems. It was recognized as a U.S. Army Top 10 Greatest Invention for 2004.

In 2008, I2WD developed the Whisper system, a passive detection capability integrated into the combat engineer’s reconnaissance vehicle to detect critical radio-controlled IED threats used by the enemy. The Army recognized it as a U.S. Army Top 10 Greatest Invention for that year.

In 2009, I2WD developed the CREW Duke V3, a field-deployable, single-unit system that was designed to provide force protection against radio controlled-IEDs. Duke V3 enhancements reduced size, weight and power requirements, further simplified operations and improved performance. By 2010, more than 25,000 Duke systems had been fielded, reducing insurgents’ employment of radio-controlled IEDs during the Global War on Terror.

Also in 2009, I2WD developed the Wolfhound Handheld Threat Warning System, a technology that aids in combat search and rescue, can identify and geo-locate spotter positions and observation posts, and can be used in both static and mobile operations.

The Army recognized CREW Duke V3 and Wolfhound as U.S. Army Top 10 Greatest Inventions for 2009.